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6단계 어학레벨 기준, CEFR

Gcentre 2015.02.11 18:36 V. 17468
홈페이지 http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/cadre1_en.asp
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Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Euro..._Languages

일반적으로 어학기관의 레벨은 6단계로 레벨 분화가 되어 있습니다. 이것에 대한 기준을 명확하게 보기 위해서 살펴봐야 할 것이 CEFR 기준입니다. 아래의 위키 피디어 내용을 참조하시고 A1부터 C2까지 총 6단계에 대한 기본사항을 이해하시면 어학연수에 도움이 되실 것입니다.

CEFR(Common European Framework of Reference for Languages)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, abbreviated as CEFR or CEF, is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe and, increasingly, in other countries (for example, Colombia and the Philippines). It was put together by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project "Language Learning for European Citizenship" between 1989 and 1996. Its main aim is to provide a method of learning, teaching and assessing which applies to all languages in Europe. In November 2001 a European Union Council Resolution recommended using the CEFR to set up systems of validation of language ability. The six reference levels (see below) are becoming widely accepted as the European standard for grading an individual's language proficiency.


In 1991 the Swiss Federal Authorities held an Intergovernmental Symposium in Rüschlikon, Switzerland, on "Transparency and Coherence in Language Learning in Europe: Objectives, Evaluation, Certification". This symposium found that a common European framework for languages was needed to improve the recognition of language qualifications and help teachers co-operate, eventually leading to improved communication and cooperation among language teachers in Europe.

As a result of the symposium, the Swiss National Science Foundation set up a project to develop levels of proficiency, to lead on to the creation of a "European Language Portfolio" - certification in language ability which can be used across Europe.

A preliminary version of the Manual for Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) was published in 2003. This draft version was piloted in a number of projects, which included linking a single test to the CEFR, linking suites of exams at different levels, and national studies by exam boards and research institutes. Practitioners and academics shared their experiences at a colloquium in Cambridge in 2007 and the pilot case studies and findings were published in Studies in Language Testing (SiLT). The findings from the pilot projects then informed the Manual revision project during 2008/09.

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Theoretical background

The CEFR adopts an action-oriented approach that, according to Carlos César Jiménez of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, can be traced back to theoretical proposals made by philosophers of language such as Ludwig Wittgenstein in the 1950s and sociolinguists such as Dell Hymes. The approach regards language users as social agents who develop general and particular communicative competences while trying to achieve their everyday goals.

The CEFR divides general competences in knowledge (descriptive knowledge), skills, and existential competence with particular communicative competences in linguistic competence, sociolinguistic competence, and pragmatic competence. This division does not exactly match previously well-known notions of communicative competence, but correspondences among them can be made.

General and particular communicative competences are developed by producing or receiving texts in various contexts under various conditions and constraints. These contexts correspond to various sectors of social life that the CEFR calls domains. Four broad domains are distinguished: educational, occupational, public, and personal.

A language user can develop various degrees of competence in each of these domains and to help describe them the CEFR has provided a set of Common Reference Levels.

Common reference levels

The Common European Framework divides learners into three broad divisions that can be divided into six levels; for each level, it describes what a learner is supposed to be able to do in reading, listening, speaking and writing. These levels are:

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level grouplevel group namelevellevel namedescription
ABasic UserA1Breakthrough or beginner
  • Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type.
  • Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has.
  • Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.
A2Way stage or elementary
  • Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment).
  • Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters.
  • Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
BIndependent UserB1Threshold or intermediate
  • Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.
  • Can deal with most situations likely to arise while traveling in an area where the language is spoken.
  • Can produce simple connected text on topics that are familiar or of personal interest.
  • Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
B2Vantage or upper intermediate
  • Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialization.
  • Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party.
  • Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
CProficient UserC1Effective Operational Proficiency or advanced
  • Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognize implicit meaning.
  • Can express ideas fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions.
  • Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes.
  • Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organizational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
C2Mastery or proficiency
  • Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read.
  • Can summarize information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation.
  • Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in the most complex situations.

These descriptors can apply to any of the languages spoken in Europe, and there are translations in many languages.

Rest of the world

The table below summarizes the correspondences between CEFR levels and common language proficiency scales around the world.

mulUNIcertUNIcert IUNIcert IIUNIcert IIIUNIcert IV
catCatalan Language CertificatesBàsic-A2Elemental-B1Intermedi-B2Suficiència-C1Superior-C2
cmnChinese Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi(HSK)HSK Level 3HSK Level 4HSK Level 5HSK Level 6--
cmnTest of Chinese As A Foreign Language(TOCFL) (Taiwan)TOCFL Level 1TOCFL Level 2TOCFL Level 3TOCFL Level 4TOCFL Level 5
cymWJEC Defnyddio'r GymraegMynediad (Entry)Sylfaen (Foundation)Canolradd (Intermediate)-Uwch (Advanced)Hyfedredd (Proficiency)
czeCzech Language Certificate Exam (CCE)CCE-A1CCE-A2CCE-B1CCE-B2CCE-C1-
danPrøve i Dansk (Danish Language Exam)[36]Prøve i Dansk 1Prøve i Dansk 2Prøve i Dansk 3Studieprøven
deuGoethe-InstitutGoethe-Zertifikat A1
Start Deutsch 1
Goethe-Zertifikat A2
Start Deutsch 2
Goethe-Zertifikat B1
Zertifikat Deutsch(ZD)
Goethe-Zertifikat B2
Zertifikat Deutsch für den Beruf (ZDfB)
Goethe-Zertifikat C1
Zentrale Mittelstufenprüfung
Goethe-Zertifikat C2 - Großes Deutsches Sprachdiplom (GDS)
Zentrale Oberstufenprüfung
Kleines Deutsches Sprachdiplom
deuTestDaFTDN 3 — TDN 4TDN 4 — TDN 5
ellΠιστοποίηση Ελληνομάθειας(Certificate of Attainment in Modern Greek)Α1
(Στοιχειώδης Γνώση)
(Βασική Γνώση)
(Μέτρια Γνώση)
(Καλή Γνώση)
(Πολύ Καλή Γνώση)
(Άριστη Γνώση)
engAnglia ExaminationsPreliminaryElementaryIntermediateAdvancedProficiencyMasters
engTrackTestA1 (Beginner)A2 (Elementary)B1 (Pre-Intermediate)B2 (Intermediate)C1 (Upper-Intermediate)C2 (Advanced)
engIELTS2.03.03.5-4.5 (3.5 is the margin)5.0-6.0 (5.0 is the margin)6.5-7.5 (6.5 is the margin)8.0-9.0 (8.0 is the margin)
engTOEIC60 - 105 (listening) 60 - 110 (reading)110 - 270 (listening) 115 - 270 (reading)275 - 395 (listening) 275 - 380 (reading)400 - 485 (listening) 385 - 450 (reading)490 - 495 (listening) 455 - 495 (reading)
engDuolingo English Test ? ?2.6 to 5.55.6 to 8.58.6 to 10.0 ?
engTOEFL (IBT)8-12 (speaking)13-18 (speaking), 11-16 (writing)57 to 8687 to 109110 to 12029-30 (reading)
engTOEFL ITP337460543627
engTOEFL Junior Standard225-245 (listening), 210-245 (language form), 210-240 (reading)250-285 (listening), 250-275 (language form), 245-275 (reading)290-300 (listening), 280-300 (language form), 280-300 (reading)
engCity and GuildsPreliminaryAccessAchieverCommunicatorExpertMastery
engNQF (UK Only)Entry LevelLevel 1Level 2Level 3Levels 4-6Level 7-8
engCambridge examKET (45 to 59)PET (45 to 59)/ KET Pass with Merit, PassFCE (45 to 59) / PET Pass with Merit, Pass / KET Pass with DistinctionCAE (45 to 59) / FCE grade B or C / PET Pass with DistinctionCPE (45 to 59) / CAE grade B or C / FCE grade ACPE grade A, B or C / CAE grade A
engPTE Academic3043597685ƒ
engPTE General (formerly LTE)Level A1Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 5
engTrinity College London Integrated Skills in English (ISE) / Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) / Spoken English for Work (SEW)GESE 2ISE 0
GESE 3, 4
GESE 5, 6
GESE 7, 8, 9
SEW 2, 3
GESE 10, 11
engBritish General QualificationsFoundation Tier GCSEHigher Tier GCSEGCE AS level / lower grade A-levelGCE A-Level (known as A2)
eusHABELehenengo maila - HABEBigarren maila - HABEHirugarren maila - HABELaugarren maila - HABE
eusEGAEuskararen Gaitasun Agiria
fraCIEP / Alliance française diplomasTCF A1 / DELFA1TCF A2 / DELFA2 / CEFP 1TCF B1 / DELF B1 / CEFP 2TCF B2 / DELF B2 / Diplôme de LangueTCF C1 / DALF C1 / DSLCFTCF C2 / DALFC2 / DHEF
glgCertificado de lingua galega (CELGA)[67]CELGA 1CELGA 2CELGA 3CELGA 4CELGA 5
itaCILSA1A2UnoDueTreQuattro / DIT C2
itaPLIDA (Dante Alighieri Society diplomas)PLIDA A1PLIDA A2PLIDA B1PLIDA B2PLIDA C1PLIDA C2
jpnJapanese-Language Proficiency Test(JLPT)N5N4N3N2N1-
korTest of Proficiency in Korean (TOPIK)Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 5Level 6
nldCNaVT - Certificaat Nederlands als Vreemde Taal (Certificate of Dutch as Foreign Language)Profile tourist and informal language proficiency (PTIT)Profile societal language proficiency (PMT)Profile professional language proficiency (PPT), Profile language proficiency higher education (PTHO)Profile academic language proficiency (PAT)
nldInburgeringsexamen (Integration examination for immigrants from outside the EU)Pre-examination at embassy of home countryExamination in the Netherlands
nldStaatsexamen Nederlands als tweede taal NT2 (State Examination Dutch as second language NT2)NT2 programma INT2 programma II
norNorskprøverNorskprøve 1Norskprøve 2Norskprøve 3Bergenstest
porCELPE-BrasIntermediateIntermediateSuperior IntermediateSuperior IntermediateAdvancedSuperior Advanced
rusТРКИ – Тест по русскому языку как иностранному (TORFL – Test of Russian as a Foreign Language)ТЭУ Элементарный уровеньТБУ Базовый уровеньТРКИ-1 (I Cертификационный уровень) (1st Certificate level)ТРКИ-2ТРКИ-3ТРКИ-4
spaDELEA1A2B1 (formerly "Inicial")B2 (formerly "Intermedio")C1C2 (formerly "Superior")
ALTE levelBreakthrough levelLevel 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 5
ukr UMI/ULF - Ukrainian as foreign languageUMI 1UMI 2UMI 3UMI 4UMI 5UMI 6

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